Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in agriculture and household products. Prenatal exposure to pyrethroids has been associated with a variety of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, including deficits in motor control, social adaptation, and intelligence. Cypermethrin, a type II pyrethroid, is the most frequently detected pyrethroid in food. Preliminary data suggest that prenatal exposure to cypermethrin alters the differentiation and migration of GABAergic interneurons in the embryonic mouse brain at gestational day 14.
Past SROP Scholars
Advances in diagnostic medicine have led to an awareness and heightened concern for the high prevalence of amyloid-associated neurodegenerative diseases, especially in the elderly. Extraneous misfolded protein aggregates known as amyloids are ubiquitous in many neurodegenerative diseases and have been suggested to appear before clinical symptoms manifest, as in the case of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Probes for monitoring aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are crucial to advance understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of AD.
Optic Atrophy 1 (OPA1) is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein that plays important roles on inner membrane fusion, cristae remodeling and mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Although OPA1’s function has been determined in tissues such as the optic nerve and in skeletal muscle, the role of OPA1 in adipose tissue is incompletely understood. Our preliminary data demonstrated that conditional deletion of OPA1 in mature adipocytes during embryonic development prevented diet-induced obesity (DIO).
Managing multiple cognitive tasks at once incurs a “switch cost”, measured as slower responses and increased errors when switching between tasks. This switch cost is greater in individuals with Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor symptoms in PD patients; however, high frequency STN-DBS in the motor region often leads to worsening cognitive control.
Objective: Previous studies report that exercise improves cognition in older adults; however, few studies have researched the role of arousal on improvements in cognition after exercise. This study aims to understand how arousal acutely affects cognition after light and moderate intensity exercise interventions.
The term functional analysis (FA) was used by Skinner (1953) to denote empirical demonstrations of cause-and-effect relations between environmental events and behavior (Hanley, Iwata & McCord, 2003).
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is responsible for various functions including working memory, executive functions, abstract thinking and attention. There is research suggesting that it may play an important role in consent capacity. Consent Capacity is the ability of participants to ethically consent to research. Consent appreciation is applying information correctly to one’s self. The association between the DLPFC and appreciation of the capacity to consent process was assessed.
Functional analysis methodologies (Iwata et al., 1994) were developed as a way to determine the maintaining variables of problem behavior. By manipulating the antecedent and consequence variables in rapid fashion and comparing the rates of problem behavior across those manipulations with a control condition, the function(s) may be identified. The purpose of this study is to further analyze the visual findings deduced from a graph in order to substantiate or refute them.
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a growing public health concern in the United States (SAMHSA, 2014). The aim of this analysis was to further evaluate differences in parental stress levels between mothers with SUDs (n = 64) and without (n = 75). The data was gathered from participants of a larger study that focused on identifying differences in brain response of mothers with and without SUDs when viewing images of their own or unknown infants (Kim et al., 2017). Participants with SUDs, aged 20-47 years, were recruited from an inpatient treatment facility in Houston, Texas.
Psychological well-being, which consists of personal growth, positive relationships with others, environmental mastery, self-acceptance, autonomy, and purpose in life, has been examined in the context of various health conditions. A large body of research shows that psychological well-being is associated with self-perceived health, longevity, health behaviors, and mental and physical health.
Epithelial cells, which line the surfaces of the body, are exposed to a variety of forces. One main function of epithelial cells is to rapidly sense and respond to these forces. Failure to do so can result in illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. In epithelial cells, one mechanism in place to respond to these forces is through the cell surface adhesion receptor, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). E-Cadherin is located at intracellular junctions and acts as the primary adhesion molecule.
Background: Child externalizing behavior problems such as aggression, hyperactivity, disruptive behavior, and delinquency have been associated with many factors surrounding parenting behavior and parent-child relationships. Parent-child attachment security, in particular, seems to be important for early child development. A child’s secure attachment with their parent has been shown to improve their cognitive, social, and behavioral outcomes. By contrast, insecure parent-child attachment has been found to predict the development of child externalizing behaviors.
In the early months of 1868, a group of freed black men gathered in Des Moines, Iowa to discuss the future of their uncertain rights in the wake of the Civil War. Colored Conventions were held nationwide from the 1830s to the 1890s. They served as avenues for black Americans to construct ways to solve the problems facing their communities with like minded individuals. The Iowa Colored Conventions were organized to gather black Iowans who felt that the fight for suffrage and total equality was a worthwhile one.
A fundamental event during embryogenesis of all metazoans is the formation of the primary mouth, which refers to the fusion of anterior ectoderm with the involuting endoderm. The cellular biology underlying this interaction is poorly understood: why does the mouth form where it does? Mutations in the gene encoding transcription factor Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF6) cause cleft palate, and in mouse IRF6 is essential for differentiation of epidermis and oral periderm, the most superficial layer of oral periderm.
Introduction: The frontal sinus is classified as a type of paranasal sinus. It is one of the four pairs of paranasal sinuses. The paranasal sinus is a hollow space in the bones surrounded by the nose. The frontal sinuses are aligned with cells that create mucus in order to prevent the nose from drying out. Preserving the anatomy and function of the frontal sinus is paramount.
Community Engagement is defined differently depending on the goals of any given organization, and this is pivotal to how they create, plan, and conduct programming aimed to engage the community. Therefore, this project explores the understandings of Community Engagement through the Arts in various entities in Iowa City. The project identifies different narratives of Community Engagement and Outreach. Iowa City is the main focus of the project due to its recent concentration on art and music in recent years.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a rare type of muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the human LMNA gene. The LMNA gene encodes lamins, filamentous proteins that line the inside of the nuclear envelope. To understand the molecular basis of the disease, fruit fly models were made. These models have mutations in the fruit fly Lamin C gene that correspond to disease-causing mutations in the human LMNA gene. The fruit flies develop muscular dystrophy and have reduced motility and viability.
Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) across severity levels show impairments in consent capacity when making medical decisions. Similarly, determining whether to participate in medical research requires these capacities. How does TBI affect the research consent process, more specifically, appreciation? Though patients show deficits in medical decision making, what ability do participants with TBI possess in the form of research consent ability?
Research has found that unresolved traumas and losses are positively correlated with addiction. This project aims to examine the relationship between the number of unresolved traumas and losses on the drug of choice of mothers with substance use disorders. # mothers with substance use disorders were administered the Adult Trauma Questionnaire (ATQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The ATQ measured the number of unresolved traumas and losses, and the participants’ drug of choice was measured using the ASI.
The homologous recombination (HR) mechanism is used for high-fidelity DNA repair after double-strand breakage (DSB) and the recovery of collapsed and stalled DNA replication forks. BRCA2 is a classical mediator protein in HR, replacing RAD52 in humans as the principal mediator of RAD51 filament assembly on RPA-coated ssDNA (single stand DNA). The BRCA2 protein is also a principal ovarian and breast cancer susceptibility gene and functions as one of the several mediators that facilitate presynaptic filament formation in human recombination of DNA.