Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems-along with the acetylcholine receptor-in the transmission of action potentials across nerve-nerve and neuromuscular synapses (1). This transmission involves the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Through research, scientists were able to determine a relationship between the level of AChE and ACh in the brain of Alzheimer patients. In Alzheimer patients, the levels of ACh are low making it difficult for them to remember both short-term and long-term memories.
Past SROP Scholars
The U. S. Census Bureau predicts that the number of Americans ages 65 and older will be near 70 million by 2040 (U.S. General Accounting Office & United States Congress, Senate, Special Committee on Aging, 2003). The dramatic increase in older Americans, will ultimately affect the workforce and retirement. Studies have shown an increase in the variability of the age of retirement, proving that some workers are retiring at earlier ages and others are continuing to work far beyond the expected age of retirement (Han and Moen, 1998).
The purpose of this study is to understand the types of support systems that students report as influential to their future careers. The results of this study will provide some important implications for career interventions and counseling with youth. In this study we will be able to examine the relative contributions of support systems to career aspirations among a group of 9th - 12th grade students in rural Appalachian high schools.
There are two major theoretical frameworks in which we understand nature. These theoretical frameworks are realized in the very large known as General Relativity and the very small, known as Quantum Mechanics. Unfortunately, in describing the origins of the Universe, the two theories fail individually. This is a problem that has remained unsolved since the days of Albert Einstein. The non-merging of Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity calls for a new theoretical framework. This new theoretical framework is known as String Theory.
In the United States 15,000 deaths are attributed to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) every year. About five to seven percent of people over the age of 60 will develop an AAA in the United States. Thus, nowadays a tremendous effort is underway for the search of a treatment to this localized, pathological, blood-filled dilatation of a blood vessel caused by a disease or weakening of the vessel's wall. This research focuses on the measurement of the mechanical properties of a pig aorta.
We are moving towards being an even more culturally diverse country. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics 37%, or one out of every three students, are considered to be of a racial or ethnic minority background. By 2020, minority students will make up 44% of students enrolled in public schools; by 2050, 54% of that same population. Enrollment for minority students in both elementary and secondary public schools has increased 73% over the last 25 years, compared to 19% of white students (National Center for Educational Statistics [NCES], 2000).
Previous lesion studies suggest that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) is a critical neural substrate of an emotion processing system which includes other cortical and subcortical structures. However, there are few data regarding VMPC patients' attentional focus among complex emotional distracters. In addition, although fMRI and performance, this capacity ahs not been tested among patients with focal damage to these respective regions. This study tested the role of the (VMPC) in the selective processing of emotion-word and emotion-face stimuli.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the connection between parenting styles and other social factors with the degree and persistence of conduct disorder among at-risk adolescents. Data was originally collected using a cross-sectional survey design with at-risk adolescents. The GAIN-I collects information about the adolescents' behavior, personal history, and the drug behavior. The data collected from the survey was assessed to find out the severity and specific symptoms of conduct disorder committed previously by the adolescents.
Over the past ten years, there have been extensive studies in the United States identifying bullying as one of the most important forms of peer abuse which had a detrimental effect on a substantial number of school children (Shurmer, Bor, Callaghan, Williams, Najman, 2003). According to Dan Olweus, "a person is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed repeatedly and over time to negative actions on the part of one or more person(s)" (Olweus, 1991, p. 413). Although the definition of bullying is general, boys and girls have distinct forms of bullying.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of parenting styles and violent behaviors among at-risk youth referred for a substance abuse evaluation. The study consisted of 536 at-risk youth who have been assessed at the Adolescent Health and Resource Center and 265 parents who completed the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Collateral Initial (GCI). The data was originally gathered using a cross-sectional survey design and this study analyzed the existing dataset. Data came from two questionnaires: Global Appraisal of Individual Needs Collateral Initial (CGI) for parents.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two models of adolescent drug treatment on parenting practices. The data for this study was collected using a randomized treatment evaluation design over a six month period. The sample consisted of adolescent substance users and their parents who have been referred to the Adolescent Health and Resource Center. Data was collected from GAIN assessments that have been completed by the adolescent and his/her parent at baseline and six months. The data was analyzed with an evaluative statistical design.
in order to examine the beliefs, attitudes and knowledge children have regarding ADHD, interviews were conducted to assess these facts. Prior research (Hoza et. al, 2005) has found students with ADHD prefer not to have social interactions with peers who exhibit characteristics of ADHA. Therefore, the authors hypothesize that children with ADHD will have negative attitudes and be less likely to want to have positive relationships with peers who are described as having characteristics of ADHD.
Over the last half century there has been an increase in women in academia. This increase has created a gender gap - resulting in more women being enrolled in undergraduate programs than men. Up-to-date few studies have determined the impact or causes of the gender gap. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of the gender gap on men and women - specifically some causes of men's decrease in academia, secondly some causes for women's increase in academia.
Bees are the most important pollinating group in most geographic regions. Some agricultural and some wild plants are dependent on specific species of bees for pollination, and therefore, for function and survival. This research project is part of a large project on the bees of Iowa and focuses on the bee community in the northeast hill prairies of the state. A plant community description will help determine if the bees specialize in only some taxonomically related plants (oligolecty) or if they are less specific and can forage from diverse plant families (polylecty).
Achondroplasia (ACH) is the most common genetic form of dwarfism. this disorder is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, although the majority of cases are sporadic. A gene for ACH was recently localized to 4p16.3 by linkage analyses. The ACH candidate region includes the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), which was originally considered as candidate for the Huntington's disease gene. DNA studies revealed point mutations in the FGFR3 gene in ACH heterozygotes and homozygotes.
What makes a person remember on thing over another? Different findings from previous studies suggest that the amygdala helps to guide behaviors and to process such as attention, decision-making and memory. This is a lesion study being done to help support a role for the amygdala in recognizing emotions in facial expressions. The hypothesis is that the normal subjects will mostly remember the negative scenarios followed by positive, and then remember the neutral scenarios the least because that's how the normal brain operates.
This research is considering the connection between Chaucer's Nun's Priest Tale and the stained glass image of a preacher-fox in Holy Cross church in Byfield, Northamptonshire in English. It was my theory that both Chaucer and the unknown artist of this stained glass image used their artistic ability to comment on the hypocrisy of the Church during this time. This summer, my mentor Dr. Katherine Tachau, challenged me to explore the authenticity of the stained glass image.
Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is a common human birth defect that develops when the tissues of the lip and palate don't fuse properly during embryonic development. It affects 1 in 700 babies and may result from environmental and/or genetic factors. This research is focused on the identification of mutations in candidate genes in the affected twin of a discordant monozygotic (MZ) pair. Detecting these mutations can provide information about the causes of the phenotypic differences between the pairs.
The Leadership Training Program is designed for both high school and college students. The main focus for this project is to create more opportunities for women and minorities who are on the verge of dropping out of high school. Some students are less likely to attend a four year university because stressful worries of paying for college. One out of every four students may not be well informed about information on financial aid packets and scholarship being offered by there home universities.
This project focuses inside the mechanism by which dinitrogen is reduced by a catalytic enzyme called nitrogenase (NG). It is proposed to examine the changes in N| bond order via ||N kinetic isotope effect (KIE) studies, and to determine KIE for two of the three isotopic N| molecules (||N|, ||N-||N). To run this experiment it as necessary to prepare an enzymatic reaction mixture containing N| as a substrate, MgCl|, TES, ATP, creatine phosphate, creatine phosphokinase, dithionite, bis Tris, HEPPS, CHES; final pH was 7.4.
There are several commonly known areas of health where universal disparities persist, however, racial and ethnic disparities are limited to minority groups. A prime example where disparities exist, aside from the top six diseases that plague minorities, is the mental health arena. Some researchers attribute the fact that minorities have higher incidences, mortality rates and lower survival rates in mental health to racial and ethnic disparities. However, little research has been done on the burden of mental illness among minority groups.
The Department of Defense (DoD) manages 5862 installations throughout the U.S. Military activities contaminate the soil, water, and air, causing environmental and health concerns for surrounding communities. They require environmental restoration, currently under way at 3766 installations. To involve the public in cleanup decisions, the DoD relies on Restoration Advisory Boards (RABs). RABs provide communication mechanisms whereby the DoD informs the public and the community provides input in the decision making process.
The major glycoprotein of the varicella-zoster virus is called gE. Previous research has shown tht human antibodies against gE have a relatively broader staining pattern seen by confocal microscopy than the mouse monoclonal antibody against gE in VZV-32 (wild type) infected melanoma cells. To further investigate these findings, melanoma cells infected with the Varicella-Zoster virus wild type were treated with 370 and 3B3, two mouse primary monoclonal antibodies against gE, and Human gE, also a primary monoclonal antibody against gE.
Rainfall is measured commonly by disdrometers and tipping buckets rain gauges, which measure drops as they fall to the ground. Before reaching these instruments, some raindrops are intercepted by other objects and raindrops along the way, some face wind resistance, and some splash from other surfaces into the instruments. Because disdrometers and tipping buckets do not account for splash from other surfaces, the corresponding measurements can be flowed, ultimately affecting data collections, weather forecasting, weather modeling and agricultural planning and monitoring.
The purposes of this study will be to identify what factors are associated with risky behaviors among adolescents who receive primary health care services. For this study, data will be gathered using a cross sectional survey design with data from existing patient record. The data will be collected mainly from the GAPS instrument. After data has been collected, the association of various factors with risky behavior will be evaluated. Data will be gathered from patient records at the Iowa hospital using an instrument developed for this study - the Wallace Data Collection instrument.